By B. Lisk. Bennington College.
For example discount levitra extra dosage 60 mg line, the number of correct answers on a stu- dent’s test is generally positively related to the number of hours spent studying purchase 40mg levitra extra dosage overnight delivery. Students who produce more correct Counseling psychology answers have spent more hours studying; similarly generic 60 mg levitra extra dosage with mastercard, fewer correct answers occur with fewer hours spent studying levitra extra dosage 60mg discount. An area of psychology which focuses on nurturing the development potential of relatively healthy in- One could also see whether the number of wrong dividuals in all areas of their lives. This pat- tern is likely to produce a negative correlation: a greater While the counseling psychologist may diagnose, number of wrong answers is associated with less study assess, and treat adjustment difficulties, they often ad- time. That is, the value of one variable increases (wrong dress problems which are more moderate than those en- answers) as the other decreases (hours spent studying). Clients of coun- Correlations allow an assessment of whether two seling psychologists are people who need help coping variables are systematically related within a group of in- with the stresses of everyday life, and the focus is on dividuals. A single person may show behavior that dif- strengthening their existing resources rather than over- fers from most of the rest of the group. The given student might study for many hours and still not counseling psychologist may use a number of tools in perform well on a test. This does not mean that study treating clients, including psychotherapy,workshops in time and test grades are not related; it only means that such areas as assertiveness training or communications exceptions exist for individuals, even if the rest of the skills, and psychological assessments. In contrast to a clinical psychother- ject do better because of their interest; they also study apist, the counseling psychologist may intervene in the more because they like the material. One of the psychotherapy, the relationship between counselor and limitations of the correlational method is that although client may extend to situations outside the office setting. It has traditionally followed an educational rather ment associated with both greater study time and higher than a medical model, considering those it helps as test scores. Its educational context is also variables (increase in study time and increase in grades), evident in its emphasis on developmental models derived psychologists refer to this as the third variable problem. A focus on adult quarterly, and the Journal of Counseling Psychology, development is helpful to many types of clients, such as which appears bimonthly. Counseling psychology, parallel- Further Reading ing a growing trend among health care providers, also Brammer, Lawrence M. Therapeutic Psychology: Fundamen- advocates preventive as well remedial approaches to tals of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Carl Rogers,whose methods were more readily under- stood and adapted by counselors than those of Sigmund Freud, had a lasting influence on the techniques of voca- tional counseling and counseling psychology, which Counterconditioning focus more on the process than on the outcome of the An aspect of behavior therapy that involves weak- counseling relationship. Two other theoretical models ening or eliminating an undesired response by in- that have been especially influential are decision-making troducing and strengthening a second response theory and the social influence model. Decision-making is related to counsel- which is employed to reduce or eliminate fear of a par- ing psychology’s overall emphasis on problem solving. An early example of systematic desensitization was an experiment that is also Social influence theory, currently one of the prevail- the first recorded use of behavior therapy with a child. Jones countered the child’s negative re- that contribute to the counselor’s social influence; the sponse to rabbits with a positive one by exposing him to ways in which social influence can be maximized; and a caged rabbit while he sat some distance away, eating social influence in relation to such factors as race, gen- one of his favorite foods. Over the years, the fields of comfortable with the rabbit as the cage was gradually counseling psychology and psychotherapy have begun to moved closer, until he was finally able to pet it and play overlap as clinical psychologists have concentrated more with it without experiencing any fear. In the 1950s South African psychiatrist Joseph There has also been a growing overlap between counsel- Wolpe (1915- ) pioneered a prototype for systematic de- ing and social work, as social workers have moved in the sensitization as it is generally practiced today. Thus, Cover’s experiment, Wolpe’s technique involved gradual- there has been an overlap between these professions. However, instead of countering the fear with a plea- Most counselor training programs are offered by surable stimulus such as food, Wolpe countered it with colleges of education rather than psychology depart- deliberately induced feelings of relaxation. As the establishment of credentials has become client imagine a variety of frightening experiences and more and more important (particularly with regard to then rank them in order of intensity. The client was then payments by insurance companies), counseling psychol- trained in deep muscle relaxation and instructed to prac- ogy programs are offering (and requiring) an increased tice it as he pictured the experiences he had described, amount of training in basic psychology, which can in- progressing gradually from the least to the most frighten- clude rigorous internship programs. Today systemic desensitization of the type pioneered ogy has its own division, Division 17, of the American by Wolpe is widely used with both adults and children. For example, when treating exhibitionists, it is used to overcome a wide variety of fears, such as fear would be difficult to justify encouraging people to ex- of certain animals or fear of the dark.
Combating Inflammation Although inflammation is a natural response to injury purchase 40 mg levitra extra dosage, this process can be uncomfortable for a patient generic levitra extra dosage 40mg with visa, especially when there is fever purchase 60mg levitra extra dosage free shipping, pain 40 mg levitra extra dosage with visa, and swelling. Anti-inflammatory medication can be given to reduce the inflammatory process and bring comfort to the patient. Anti-inflammatory medication stops the production of prostaglandins result- ing in a decrease in the inflammatory process. Inhibits platelet aggregation (grouping to form clot) Many anti-inflammatory medications fall within all three categories. Aspirin is one of them, which is the oldest and least expensive anti-inflammatory med- ication available and, along with acetaminophen and ibuprofen, is the choice for relieving headaches. Corticosteroids, such as prednisone, are frequently used as anti-inflammatory agents. This group of drugs can control inflammation by suppressing or pre- venting many of the components of the inflammatory process at the injured site. There are other anti-inflammatory medications that are not chemically the same as corticosteroid medication. This com- mon form of arthritis is the result of deformation or mismatched joint surfaces, rather than an inflammatory disease. Symptoms include joint stiffness that usually lasts only a few minutes after initiating movement and perhaps an aching pain in weight-bearing joints. Rheumatoid arthritis usually occurs between 30 to 70 years of age and occurs more often in women than in men. Early symptoms may include feelings of fatigue and weakness, joint pain and stiffness, and, joint swelling several weeks later. Joints are inflamed (warm, red, swollen) and often are limited in range of motion. A list of drugs utilized in the treatment of arthritis is provided in the Appendix. Gout has been called the “disease of Kings” because in the past, royalty ate rich foods and drank wine and alcohol and suffered from gout. The most common site of acute gouty inflam- mation is at the joint of the big toe. It is characterized by a uric acid metabolism disorder and a defect in purine (products of certain proteins) metabolism, resulting in an increase in urates (uric acid salts) and an accumulation of uric acid (hyperuricemia) or an ineffective clearance of uric acid in the kidneys. Uric acid solubility is poor in acid urine and urate crystals may form, causing urate calculi (stones). Gout may appear as bumps or “tophi” in the subcutaneous tissue of earlobes, elbows, hands, and the base of the large toe. The complications of untreated or prolonged periods of gout include tophi, gouty arthritis, urinary calculi, and gouty nephropathy. Fluid intake should be increased while taking antigout drugs and the urine should be alkaline. Foods rich in purine, including wine, alcohol, organ meats, sardines, salmon, and gravy should be avoided. The body releases hista- mines, kinins, and prostaglandins that force fluid and white blood cells to the site of the injury to stimulate nerve endings and clean the area so it can heal. The site of the injury becomes red, swollen, and warm and loses its normal function. The vascular phase is where blood vessels dilate and become permeable so fluid and white blood cells can leave the vessel. Anti-inflammatory medication reduces the inflammatory process which may allow the patient to go about normal daily activities while the tissue heals. There are three categories of anti-inflammatory medications: analgesic, to relieve pain; antipyretic, to reduce fever; and anticoagulants, to inhibit blood clotting. You learned in this chapter that inflammation is not an infection although inflammation frequently occurs when a patient becomes infected with a micro- organism. Inflammation occurs in response to tissue injury whether it is from an injury or an acute or chronic disease such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout. You’ll learn about infection and fever and antimicrobial medication in the next chapter.
The use of positive reinforcement in changing behavior is almost always more effective than using punishment levitra extra dosage 40mg discount. This is because positive reinforcement makes the person or animal feel better buy levitra extra dosage 60 mg on-line, helping create a positive relationship with the person providing the reinforcement levitra extra dosage 40mg on line. Types of positive reinforcement that are effective in everyday life include verbal praise or approval 40mg levitra extra dosage with amex, the awarding of status or prestige, and direct financial payment. Punishment, on the other hand, is more likely to create only temporary changes in behavior because it is based on coercion and typically creates a negative and adversarial relationship with the person providing the reinforcement. When the person who provides the punishment leaves the situation, the unwanted behavior is likely to return. The trainer gave a command and the dolphin swam to the bottom of the pool, picked up a ring on its nose, jumped out of the water through a hoop in the air, dived again to the bottom of the pool, picked up another ring, and then took both of the rings to the trainer at the edge of the pool. The animal was trained to do the trick, and the principles of operant conditioning were used to train it. But these complex behaviors are a far cry from the simple stimulus-response relationships that we have considered thus far. One way to expand the use of operant learning is to modify the schedule on which the reinforcement is applied. To this point we have only discussed a continuous reinforcement schedule, in which the desired response is reinforced every time it occurs; whenever the dog rolls over, for instance, it gets a biscuit. Continuous reinforcement results in relatively fast learning but also rapid extinction of the desired behavior once the reinforcer disappears. The problem is that because the organism is used to receiving the reinforcement after every behavior, the responder may give up quickly when it doesn‘t appear. Most real-world reinforcers are not continuous; they occur on a partial (or intermittent) reinforcement schedule—a schedule in which the responses are sometimes reinforced, and sometimes not. In comparison to continuous reinforcement, partial reinforcement schedules lead to slower initial learning, but they also lead to greater resistance to extinction. Because the reinforcement does not appear after every behavior, it takes longer for the learner to determine that the reward is no longer coming, and thus extinction is slower. In a fixed-interval schedule, reinforcement occurs for the first response made after a specific amount of time has passed. For instance, on a one-minute fixed-interval schedule the animal receives a reinforcement every minute, assuming it engages in the behavior at least once during the minute. An example might be checking your e-mail: You are reinforced by receiving messages that come, on average, say every 30 minutes, but the reinforcement occurs only at random times. Interval reinforcement schedules tend to produce slow and steady rates of responding. Also, unpredictable schedules (variable types) produce stronger responses than do predictable schedules (fixed types). Retrieved from Essentials of PsychologyPrentice Hall Companion Website:http://wps. In a fixed-ratio schedule, a behavior is reinforced after a specific number of responses. For instance, a rat‘s behavior may be reinforced after it has pressed a key 20 times, or a salesperson may receive a bonus after she has sold 10 products. A variable-ratio schedule provides reinforcers after a specific but average number of responses. Winning money from slot machines or on a lottery ticket are examples of reinforcement that occur on a variable-ratio schedule. For instance, a slot machine may be programmed to provide a win every 20 times the user pulls the handle, on average. For instance, he could train a rat to press a bar two times to receive food, by first providing food when the animal moved near the bar.
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