By S. Grok. Northwestern College, Saint Paul, MN.

As we mentioned before purchase lasix 100 mg fast delivery, clinics generic lasix 40 mg online, hospitals lasix 40 mg sale, and pharmaceutical companies often have websites that offer useful data cheap lasix 100 mg without prescription. However, if you are looking for the most objective information or need to make comparisons, these sites are not necessarily the best. And obviously any site where the main objective is to sell you something should not be your first choice. Two researchers studied all the information available on the Internet for an herbal remedy called Opuntia. The authors concluded that “the only way to assure high content quality was for the website to provide references to scientific publications. There is no doubt that 86 Becoming Your Own Medical Detective chat rooms can be a great place to commiserate with fellow sufferers, gain support, and exchange ideas that can sometimes be valuable when dealing with a mystery malady. They are a great place to ask questions and hear what others have to say. After all, as we have said many times, answers may come from any source and you must keep an open mind. Nevertheless, it is imperative to check out the information you find there with a trusted physician. Equally important is the warning that some- one else’s advice or experience may send you off in a direction that is not the most fruitful use of your time or may create a false expectation—be it positive or negative. Just use your discretion and don’t take anyone else’s advice without consulting your physician. Conclusion As you begin to explore the Internet on health topics, you will be amazed at how much information is available. You will be able to gain access to research studies and clinical trials. If you check the “About Us” sections, nar- row your searches, ask yourself the nine questions we’ve outlined, avoid the possible pitfalls we warned about, use your common sense, and always con- sult with your physician, you are sure to find surfing the Web an invaluable part of your medical detective work. With the tools you’ve learned in this chapter in combination with the Eight Steps to Self-Diagnosis, you’ll be well on your way to a correct diagnosis. In the next section, we’ll discuss different categories of symptoms and conditions and illustrate them with numerous case studies. We’ll show you how our revolutionary model of medical detective work turned these diag- nostic nightmares into treatment successes. Part 2 DIAGNOSING YOUR MYSTERY MALADY Copyright © 2005 by Lynn Dannheisser and Jerry Rosenbaum. Many mystery maladies are characterized by vague symptoms that could be associated with many different conditions. They are diagnosed by the absence of evidence of any other disease that could account for those symp- toms. Some mystery maladies have not even been recognized until recently, and many more are yet to be named. For example, as we mentioned in Chapter 1, multiple sclerosis, once known as “faker’s disease,” was finally recognized because advances in medical technology (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] of the brain and spine) finally allowed objective verification. The disorder described in the following case study was still relatively unknown at the time it occurred. Although recognized today as a legitimate ailment, it is still not always easily identifiable by most physicians, and there remains disagreement among board-certified rheumatologists about its cause. Yet if left untreated, this condition can become chronic and debili- tating. Ellen, the woman in the following case study, and I (Lynn) were friends. So when she told me about her symptoms, I shared the Eight Step method with her. Until that time, apart from her inability to shed some unwanted pounds from her preg- nancy, she had been in excellent health. Thinking perhaps her weight was causing her symptoms, she began working out at a neighborhood fitness center three mornings a week. After a few days of vigorous exercise, her condition improved some- what but babysitting problems made it difficult for her to keep a steady workout schedule. And since her thirteen-month-old daughter was still not sleeping through the night, Ellen was often too tired to go to the gym.

When his independent British editorial board to include the chief generic lasix 40mg otc, Trendelenburg cheap 100 mg lasix free shipping, moved to Leipzig discount lasix 40mg line, Perthes editor and other officers besides representatives of accompanied him lasix 100 mg on line. Shortly after, Perthes served in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South the expeditionary force sent to China during the Africa, as well as the United Kingdom. Upon his return Platt accepted its chairmanship in the initial from China, he was made professor and director stages, but then handed over to Perkins, who of the Surgical Polyclinic Institute in Leipzig, served till retiring in 1952. In 1911, he In a number of the journal dedicated to George succeeded van Braunns as professor and director Perkins at that time, Sir Reginald Watson-Jones of the Surgical Clinic in Tübingen, where he wrote: “He inspired the British Volume of The finished out his career. Without him also wrote on vascular and chest diseases and on there would probably never have been a British maxillofacial injuries and war surgery. He thought of it long one of the early exponents of the clinical use of before it started. In a second publication he was able to describe accu- rately the gross and microscopic changes in a hip obtained at autopsy. Phelps graduated from Princeton Born on a farm near Carbondale in Southern Illi- University in 1916 and from the Johns Hopkins nois, Dr. After serving a year of after graduation from high school, continued his internship at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and education at the Normal School of Northern another at Massachusetts General Hospital, he Indiana. While there he decided to become a began his orthopedic training in the Harvard physician, and entered Rush Medical College of program at Boston’s Children’s Hospital in 1923. After graduation from Rush in 1904, he Department of Orthopedic Surgery in 1931. He Because of his interest in the problems of patients then entered private practice in LaGrange, Illi- with cerebral palsy, he gave up this position and nois, continuing at the same time his interest in in 1936 went to Baltimore to establish the Chil- teaching and research as a member of the Rush dren’s Rehabilitation Institute. In this period of American medicine, ciated with this Institute for the rest of his career. Here began what became the most Institute, he had great influence in bringing the absorbing interest of his career—the study of the problems of these patients to the attention of pathology of bone diseases. He pointed out the to Chicago to resume his teaching position at importance of a holistic approach, i. Phelps’ paper on the classification the Presbyterian Hospital Unit, and at the end of and treatment of cerebral birth injuries, written the war returned to Rush Medical College, where early in his career, is considered by orthopedic he soon became professor of surgery. Bick to be the most important carried on a large private practice, he devoted publication on the subject since the original much time to teaching and laboratory research. Many of his contributions to the knowledge of bone and joint diseases, as well as to the field of general surgery, owe their inception to this period in his life. Phemister’s achievements won him every school at the University of Chicago in 1927, recognition in the medical world. Phemister entered upon the most significant positions of distinction in the surgical societies of work of his career. The university asked him to the United States and in international associa- undertake the task of organizing a department of tions. Many foreign societies conferred honorary surgery, whose members were to devote all their memberships upon him. These honors he received time to teaching and investigation as well as to with characteristic humility and always with a clinical work. His greatest personal full-time medical faculty was an important new satisfaction was to observe the growth and principle, Dr. While awaiting the completion of the buildings On December 28, 1951, the medical world was of the university clinics, he went to Europe for saddened by the death of Dallas B. In London he began his work on operative shock, a subject to which he made contributions of the greatest importance through the subsequent years. With the opening of the University of Chicago School of Medicine, came the most productive years of his career. Not only did he make many contributions to knowledge, but by his example, he stimulated others who came under his influ- ence to do likewise. His research on bone tumors, infections, bone growth and repair, bone trans- plantation and aseptic necrosis of bone radically altered the surgical care of patients with skeletal disorders.

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In 1877 generic lasix 40mg without prescription, he spent a year studying in Munich with Professor Nussbaum cheap lasix 40 mg without a prescription, who had visited Lister and was a strong advocate of antiseptic–aseptic surgery buy lasix 100mg free shipping. After his return to the United States cheap 40 mg lasix otc, Senn was made professor of surgery in the College of Physi- cians and Surgeons in Chicago, and moved on to become professor of surgery at the Rush Medical College in 1888. About this time, his surgical clinic was one of the busiest in the world, and he attracted international students. A man of inexhaustible energy, Senn wrote incessantly, traveled, served as a medical officer in the Spanish–American War, and even found time to serve as president of the American Medical Asso- ciation in 1897. He was chairman of the editorial board at the inception of Surgery, Gynecology, Newton M. Following his death in 1908, his library of 40,000 volumes and 60,000 1846–1928 pamphlets became the nucleus of the great medical reference section of the John Crerar Newton M. Taylor as chief of the New York Orthopedic Dis- 303 Who’s Who in Orthopedics pensary and Hospital. In addition he was ortho- pleted in 1940 and Shands became surgeon-in- pedic surgeon at St. He was the first to describe clinically the medical director of the institute until 1969. His Handbook of Orthopedic Surgery became an important educa- tional resource; nine editions were published. Perhaps his greatest contribution to orthopedics was his essential role in the formation of the Orthopedic Research and Education Foundation, and his support of the Orthopedic Research Society. He was honored by elected positions in various orthopedic and other groups. He was a recipient of numerous honorary memberships and honorary degrees. His distinguished presence was noted at the annual meetings of orthopedic societies, where he was especially friendly and encouraging to the young investigators. As a historian, Shands will be remembered for his article about the development of orthopedics as a specialty in the United States. Many historic articles were published in The Early Orthopedic Surgeons of America. The young man graduated from the Univer- sity of Virginia in 1918 and enrolled in Johns Hopkins Medical School. He remained at Johns Hopkins Hospital for surgical and orthopedic training until 1927. He returned to Washington, DC to join his father in practice until 1930, when he was invited to Duke University Medical School to initiate the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and the orthopedic residency program. In 1937, Shands left Duke University to become medical director of the Alfred I. His first task at the institute was to plan and supervise the construction of a children’s ortho- pedic hospital on the grounds of Nemours, the estate of Alfred I. The hospital was com- 304 Who’s Who in Orthopedics give his full attention and time to encourage their research and promote their careers. With the decline in poliomyelitis he turned his attention to cerebral palsy. He clarified the mech- anism of the deformity and the origin of contrac- tures, and developed guidelines for the prevention and treatment of these complications. The large number of patients with myelomeningocele and varying degrees of paralysis of the lower limb who had survived as a result of early closure of the spinal lesion presented another problem. A special clinic had to be established for the ortho- pedic management of these children, who often required multiple operations for their deformities. John Sharrard’s enormous experience in this field led to another thesis, for which he was awarded ChM with commendation. In addition to his commitments to the National William John Wells SHARRARD Health Service and a large private practice, John traveled widely as visiting professor and as an 1921–2001 invited lecturer to cities in North and South America, South Africa, Europe and the Middle William John Wells Sharrard was one of the out- East. At home he was Hunterian Professor, Robert standing orthopedic surgeons of his generation. Jones Lecturer, Arris & Gale Lecturer and Joseph He came from a medical family.

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To illustrate generic 100mg lasix with mastercard, gaining access to alternative therapies can be easy (Campion 1993; Murray and Shepherd 1993) purchase lasix 40 mg with visa. In fact buy lasix 100 mg visa, it can be easier than trying to access an allopathic specialist without a referral from a general practitioner 40 mg lasix otc, or than acquiring a family doctor in many parts of Canada today. Further, while the right to diagnose, prescribe, and dispense is controlled by doctors, pharmacists, and other health care professionals (Torrance 1998), lay people are able to prescribe and administer alternative remedies on their own authority. So I contacted them, went in and talked to them, got their catalogue and things just exploded from there. According to one participant at the healing fair, “There’s a big book of all the reflexologists, therapeutic touch therapists” (field notes). However, accessing alternative health care is more often problematic (Achilles et al. Many forms of alternative health care are not listed in any type of directory, and as Sharma (1992:46) notes, “There are those who would like to use some form of complementary medicine, but who have been unable to locate a suitable practitioner. In fact, several of the people who took part in this study told me of the dif- ficulties they had encountered in trying to find particular alternative thera- pies. According to Pam, “It’s been hit and miss and trial and error basically. The sources are there but you have to really look for them; it’s very hard to find. The bookstore will carry it, the bookstore will not carry information on not vaccinating children. Which is why most people don’t have access to it because you can’t find it until you already know it exists and that’s the problem. For this reason, the healing form of martial arts that Randal was looking for was closed to anyone not a member of a particular ethnic group. It was a closed school, if I wasn’t Chinese I wasn’t going to be taught it. And I said: ‘Well, that’s not going to stop me, I’ll still keep looking. For instance, under Medicare Canadians can use most allopathic services without charge; however, in the case of alternative therapy “you have to pay for it” (Laura). And according to Jane, I still go to a conventional doctor rather than a naturopath cause it costs you at least twenty-five dollars every visit that you go. Plus whatever you 38 | Using Alternative Therapies: A Qualitative Analysis get from them isn’t covered under my husband’s benefit plan, so it could cost me a hundred and twenty-five dollars by the time I buy the herbs and tinctures that I would need for whatever’s ailing me. Thus, having to pay out of pocket prevents many people from accessing alternative health care and is frequently cited as an explanation for the greater prevalence of use of alternative therapies among people with higher incomes (Eisenberg et al. In short, accessing alternative therapies means finding a point of entrée into alternative health care networks. In addition, negotiating these networks requires that the individual exert more effort and expend more resources than in accessing allopathic health care. RECONCEPTUALIZING THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM Where conceptualizing alternative therapy within the larger health care system is concerned, the most “influential classification” in the social sciences has been Chrisman and Kleinman’s (1983) model of the local health care system (Sharma 1993:16). Their model is made up of three overlapping spheres representing different sectors of the health care system: the popular sector, the professional sector, and the folk sector. The popular sector is composed of health care actions taken by “sick persons, their families, social networks and communities … [whereas] the folk sector includes specialist, nonprofessional, nonbureaucratized, often quasi-legal and sometimes illegal forms of health care” (Chrisman and Kleinman 1983:570–571). It is in the latter sector that they situate alternative approaches to health and healing. Finally, the professional sector is made up of “health service professions and bureaucracies basing clinical practice on highly developed and complex professional cultures” (Chrisman and Kleinman 1983:572). They argue that the boundaries of the folk sphere “shade imperceptibly into professional practice on the one side and popular care on the other” (Chrisman and Kleinman 1983:571). The usefulness of Chrisman and Kleinman’s (1983) analysis lies in its recognition that lay forms of self-care, as well as the activities of alternative practitioners and other folk healers, are indeed part of the larger health care system. To illustrate, while Chrisman and Kleinman (1983) acknowledge that the boundaries between some of the sectors within the health care system are How People Use Alternative Therapies | 39 porous, they only envision movement across the boundaries between the folk and professional spheres and those between the folk and popular sectors. Furthermore, Sharma (1993:16) charges that they fail to fully explain how “healing practices may shift their location from one sector to another” and that they do not account for “professionalization as a dynamic process in ‘alternative’ medicine in the West. Thus, not only would individuals who self-treat with alternative therapies and who later decide to seek training to practice them, move from the popular sector to the folk sector; depending on the type of training they receive, they may also move from the popular sector into the professional sphere.

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