By I. Ramirez. Immaculata College.
Assessing the quality of random ized controlled trials: current issues and future directions cheap himcolin 30gm. The Cochrane Collaboration: preparing generic 30gm himcolin with mastercard, m aintaining discount 30 gm himcolin otc, and dissem inating system atic reviews of the effects of health care himcolin 30 gm without a prescription. The D elphi list: a criteria list for quality assessm ent of random ized clinical trials for conducting system atic reviews developed by D elphi consensus. Assessing the quality of reports of random ised trials: im plications for the conduct of m eta-analyses. The m iracle of D ICE therapy for acute stroke: fact or fictional product of subgroup analysis? Im proving the quality of reports of m eta-analyses of random ised controlled trials: the QUOROM statem ent. Electronic publication by BM J to supplem ent series on m eta-analysis (see references 24–29 below). M eta-analysis of random ised trials com paring coronary angioplasty with bypass surgery. Obtaining data from random ised controlled trials: how m uch do we need for reliable and inform ative m eta-analyses? M isleading m eta-analysis: lessons from "an effective, safe, sim ple" intervention that wasn’t. D iscrepancies between m eta-analysis and subsequent large random ised controlled trials. D iabetes care in general practice: m eta-analysis of random ised controlled trials. M eta-analysis is a blunt and potentially m isleading instrum ent for analysing m ethods of service delivery. M anagers (in which I include politicians and all those who im plem ent, adm inister, evaluate, and finance the actions of clinicians but who do not them selves see patients) tend to love guidelines. Clinicians, save for the im portant m inority who actually write them , usually have a strong aversion to guidelines. Before we carry this political hot potato any further, we need a definition of guidelines, for which the following will suffice. The im age of the m edical buffoon blundering blithely through the outpatient clinic still diagnosing the sam e illnesses and prescribing the sam e drugs he (or she) learnt about at m edical school 40 years previously, and never having read a paper since, knocks the "clinical freedom " argum ent (i. Such hypothetical situations are grist to the m ill of those who would im pose "expert guidelines" on m ost if not all m edical practice and hold to account all those who fail to keep in step. This is evidence-biased m edicine; it is to use evidence in the m anner of the fabled drunkard who searched under the street lam p for his door key because that is where the light was, even though he had dropped the key som ewhere else. They will, it is feared, m ake judgem ents about people and their illnesses subservient to published evidence that an intervention is effective "on average". This, and other real and perceived disadvantages of guidelines, are given in Box 9. In the U K N ational H ealth Service, all doctors, nurses, pharm acists, and other health professionals now have a contractual duty to provide clinical care based on best available research evidence. W hilst the m edicolegal im plications of "official"guidelines have rarely been tested in the U K,12 U S courts have ruled that guideline developers can be held liable for faulty guidelines and that doctors cannot pass off their liability for poor clinical perform ance by claim ing that adherence to guidelines corrupted their judgem ent. An early system atic review of random ised trials and "other robust designs" by G rim shaw and Russell13 dem onstrated that, in the research setting (in which participants were probably highly selected and evaluation was an explicit part of guideline introduction), all but four of 59 published studies dem onstrated im provem ents – i. G rim shaw subsequently set up a special subgroup of the Cochrane Collaboration (see section 2. You can find details of the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) G roup on the Cochrane website. Both G rim shaw and Russell13 and others15, 16 found wide variation in the size of the im provem ents in perform ance achieved by clinical guidelines. The form er authors concluded that the probability of a guideline being effective depended on three factors which are sum m arised in Table 9.
Thus 30 gm himcolin amex, able himcolin 30gm visa, sometimes painful leg sensations are alleviated by oral appliances are indicated for patients who do not rubbing or squeezing the legs or simply by walking cheap 30 gm himcolin mastercard. The respond to behavioral treatment such as weight loss or prevalence of RLS is not well deﬁned order himcolin 30gm on-line. Most patients with body position, who are intolerant to CPAP, or who are 43 RLS also suffer from PLMS, suggesting that these disor- not candidates for surgery. Furthermore, many patients with on the severity of the apnea, the patient’s medical status, PLMS also suffer from other sleep disorders, including the level of urgency in treating the apnea, and the 46,47 SDB and REM sleep behavior disorder. PLMS is diagnosed in a full night sleep recording in the sleep clinic, which includes the recording of the anterior tibialis muscles to establish the MI. The muscular jerks Periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) is a disorder are often accompanied by EEG signs of arousal, which of unknown etiology, in which patients involuntarily kick may appear following the leg jerks. As with SDB, am- their limbs (most often it is their legs) in short, clustered bulatory equipment is available to record sleep in the episodes lasting between 0. These episodes occur repeatedly throughout the PLMS and RLS may be associated with some medical night. The myoclonus index (MI) represents the number conditions, including uremia, anemia, chronic lung of kicks with arousals per hour of sleep. Other PLMS, compared to 5% to 6% of the younger adult movement disorders that should be differentiated from population. Dopaminergic plain of insomnia, as they may have difﬁculty falling 49 agents such as carbidopa/levodopa, pergolide, and a asleep as well as settling back to sleep following these newer drug, pramipexol, are the treatment of choice for episodes. PLMS occur most often in the ﬁrst half of the PLMS, as they decrease or eliminate both the leg jerks night, during sleep stages 1 and 2. These medications are also successful with reduced amounts of stages 3 and 4 and REM. In one study, carbidopa/ levodopa was superior to propoxyphene in decreasing the number of leg kicks and the number of arousals per 50 hour of sleep. However, carbidopa/levodopa and, to a In addition to complaining of difﬁculty falling asleep, lesser extent, pergolide may shift the leg movements from 49 patients may also complain of excessive daytime sleepi- the nighttime to the daytime. Triazolam has been shown to 52 information from the bed partner in diagnosing and be effective in older patients, although because of age- assessing the disorder. Although less infectious than varicella patients, an elderly zoster patient can transmit varicella to an uninfected suscepti- ble host. There is no evidence that the elderly zoster patient transmits varicella or herpes zoster to latently 14 infected individuals. Regarding infection control, sus- ceptible, seronegative persons should avoid contact with the zoster patient until the rash has crusted over. To protect susceptible staff and patients, the Centers for Disease Control recommends a private room and stan- dard precautions for immunocompetent hospital patients with localized zoster. For immunocompromised patients in hospital with localized zoster or any patient with dis- seminated zoster, the recommendations are a private room with special ventilation and airborne and contact precautions. Age-related activity of varicella-zoster virus in a cated for zoster patients in long-term care facilities but population in a temperate region. These precautions no longer apply when the rash has were four times less likely than whites to develop zoster crusted over because VZV is very difﬁcult to recover and over their lifetimes, after adjusting for age, cancer, sex, the patient is no longer contagious. In a follow-up prospective study of the incidence of zoster in blacks and whites in the Duke EPESE, blacks were signiﬁcantly less likely than whites to develop zoster (adjusted risk ratio 0. The VZV genome contains ap- proximately 125,000 nucleotide base pairs and encodes about 70 gene products. Viral thymidine kinase catalyzes the transforma- limited to immunosuppressed patients is substantially tion of nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir to the higher. For example, the incidence of zoster in HIV- triphosphate form that inhibits VZV DNA polymerase infected individuals ranges from 29 to 51 per 1000 person- and viral replication. Investigators have used these data to calculate an overall lifetime incidence of zoster of 10% to 20% and to estimate the total number of cases in the United States 18 VZV causes primary infection when it invades the respi- each year to be at least 600,000. Elderly patients usually experience zoster only once, but second attacks occur in ratory tract of a VZV-naive individual. With population aging, the tory tract, VZV disseminates in the blood and infects the total number of zoster cases worldwide will increase sig- skin, causing the rash of chickenpox. VZV also infects dorsal sensory and cranial nerve ganglia where it establishes a latent, lifelong infection.
A small study designed to test the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial showed that almost 80% of subjects would be willing to be randomized to either observation or chest CT (59) discount 30gm himcolin visa. The Mayo Clinic evaluated 1520 individuals 50 and older with at least a 20-pack-a-year smoking history (54 purchase 30 gm himcolin otc,62) cheap himcolin 30 gm with amex. Over 3 years order 30gm himcolin with mastercard, 40 cancers were detected in the population: 26 prevalence, 10 inci- dence, two interval (symptom detected between screening exams), and two by sputum cytology alone. CT screening study, the Early Lung Cancer Action Project (ELCAP), enrolled 1000 symptom-free individuals 60 and older with at least a 10-pack-a-year smoking history (64). The prevalence screen Chapter 4 Imaging of Lung Cancer 65 revealed 233 noncalciﬁed nodules and 27 lung cancers, 23 stage I. During incidence screens, seven additional lung cancers were identiﬁed by screen- ing, ﬁve stage I, and two by symptoms, both advanced (63). The rate of detection of stage I cancers ranges from 50% to 80% at prevalence screen or 71% by pooling all screens at prevalence. While this represents an improvement over chest radiograph, it is not clear that this will be enough to give a large mortality advantage. The lower percentage of stage I cancers at incidence also raises the question of overdiagnosis, particularly for prevalence cases. Prevalence data from the Lung Screening Study, a randomized- controlled feasibility study, suggests that the stage shift needed to show an advantage of CT over chest x-ray may not be present (65). There were 3318 participants randomized to either posteroanterior (PA) radiograph or low- dose CT. Nodules or other suspicious ﬁndings were present in 20% of the CT group and 9% of the chest x-ray group. A lung cancer diagnosis was established in 30 participants in the CT arm; 16 were stage I (53%). Thus CT detected more cancers overall and more stage I cancers, but also detected more late-stage cancers. The NCI-sponsored National Lung Screening Trial randomized over 50,000 male and female heavy smokers to annual chest x-ray or annual low-dose helical CT for 3 years and ﬁn- ished the accrual phase in early 2004. The ultimate fate of CT screening for lung cancer rests with the presence or absence of mortality beneﬁt as well as the magnitude of beneﬁt. Even if a beneﬁt is detected, screening may be cost-prohibitive for the population as a whole. In the absence of long-term results, particularly as it relates to efﬁcacy and morbidity associated with evaluation of nodules eventually deemed benign, cost-effectiveness is largely speculative as determined by cost-efﬁcacy analysis. Two analyses have been wildly optimistic, suggest- ing that lung cancer screening may cost less than $10,000 per life year saved (66,67). This becomes more apparent when compared with other well- accepted intervention screening strategies such as mammography, hyper- tension screening in 60 year olds, and screening donated blood for HIV, which all result in a cost per life year saved of approximately $20,000 (68). In general, these studies have not accounted well for follow-up of inde- terminate nodules and the possible harms of the diagnostic algorithms on benign disease. In one study, assuming 50% of cancers detected were localized and accounting for a full range of diagnostic workup and scenarios presumes a cost per life year saved ranging from $33,000 to $48,000 (69). The least optimistic model, assuming a stage-shift of 50%, used data from previous trials to account for follow-up procedures, benign biopsies, and nonadherence. Under these circumstances the cost per life year saved was calculated as $116,000 for 66 J. Silvestri current smokers, $558,600 for quitting smokers, and $2,322,700 for former smokers (70). Thus, the cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening will have a great effect on its implementation. Summary of Evidence: Current staging of lung cancer usually consists of complementary anatomic and physiologic imaging by CT and PET (Fig.
What individuals and groups have in common as revealed by reflection on and the investigation of human nature is vastly more considerable than individual biological differences generic 30gm himcolin with visa, or cultural and environmental ones himcolin 30 gm on-line. Because of our shared psychobiological and social proclivities purchase himcolin 30gm fast delivery, we can share ideas about the range of reasonable response in problematic situations himcolin 30 gm visa. With mindfulness toward these commonalities, there can be meaningful dialogue about value choices, and it is not true that "anything goes. Dialogue about value is thus very possible, while enforced, absolute agreement has no valid basis. Means and Ends are Mingled Dewey shows that means and ends are not things in themselves, but aspects of things in relation, and he shows this, as we have seen, in rich detail. It is enlightening to recognize that actions and objects have value in both their roles as means and as ends, processes and products mediating and giving immediate satisfaction. We can benefit by caring about means not only because of the ends toward which they are mainly directed, but also because we live there with them as ends themselves, and as means to many things other than the initially intended end. When means are judged in terms of all their consequences, including the accidental and unintended ones, the concept of "efficiency," whereby means are judged simply in terms of their contribution toward an intended end becomes highly suspect. In terms of that showcased end, the unrelated consequences are "side effects," "externalities," and sometimes "bonuses. But we still, by and large, fail to recognize the positive immediate values and positive unintended consequences of processes which are seen solely as means to a directed goal. For example, in medicine, we might someday invent a hand-held body scanner which obviates the physical examination as a means for diagnosis. But before giving up the physical exam, we ought to consider therapeutic and relationship-building aspects of that process. Certain processes take time; time for the assimilation and digestion of new experience and information; time for new values and relationships to come to fruition. Value is Importantly Qualitative Dewey’s work points to the conclusion that value is in large part qualitative. The number of patients we saw in a given day is little related to the amount of help we gave. The length of life is very poorly related to the value of life, unless Jesus, Mozart, Joan of Arc and Shelley were failures. Importantly, in this respect, Dewey shows that the claims for cost-effectiveness analysis are vastly overstated. We can Work Rationally Yet Uncertainly The acceptance of uncertainty is another Dewey contribution. Dewey has highlighted the difference between situations which are routine, generic and adequately handled by habit or protocol, and those which have genuinely uncertain elements. In such genuinely problematic situations the initial dissatisfaction leading to goal directed action is often itself ill-defined, inchoate and obscure. Correlatively, we cannot be too sure of exactly what we want, or should want, until we engage the materials which present themselves, discovering their true potentials and limitations. This is especially important in the work of the professions, as Donald Schon¨ has demonstrated in his large body of work on reflective practice. Admitting uncer- tainty opens a window for new learning about our situations, ourselves, our needs and our possibilities. Determinacy, such as it is, is created out of interdeter- minacy during successful inquiry and action. Qualities Help Define Situations Although beset with many difficulties, Dewey’s proposal that a "situation" is integrated by a "tertiary quality" also offers significant promise. The tertiary quality characterizes the uniting of subject and object, agent and environment. Qualities of situations can only be guessed at by those outside them, but are lived uniquely by those participating. But it makes all the difference, in characterizing a scene, to include all aspects contributing to its quality, rather than to pretend that the only relevant features in that scene are those which centrally identify it as a case of "pulmonary edema" or "jealousy. The Ultimate End may not be the Effective Motivator Finally, Dewey had valuable insights about tactics.
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